Käypä hoito

Kohonnut verenpaine

Käypä hoito
27.11.2009
Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Verenpaineyhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä

Opi ja ota käyttöön

Koosteet

Potilaalle

Keskeinen sanoma

Tavoitteet

  • Suosituksen tavoitteena on tehostaa ja yhdenmukaistaa kohonneen verenpaineen ehkäisyä, diagnostiikkaa ja hoitoa ja siten vähentää sydän- ja verisuonisairauksia ja niihin liittyviä kuolemia.

Kohderyhmät

  • Suositus on tarkoitettu perusterveydenhuollossa, työterveyshuollossa ja erikoissairaanhoidossa verenpainepotilaita hoitaville, apteekkihenkilökunnalle sekä kohonneen verenpaineen ehkäisyn ohjelmia suunnitteleville ja toteuttaville.

Epidemiologia

Esiintyvyys ja ilmaantuvuus

Tietoisuus kohonneesta verenpaineesta ja hoitotilanne

Sairastuvuus ja kuolleisuus sydän- ja verisuonitauteihin

Taulukko 1. Sydän- ja verisuonitautien vaaratekijöiden sekä kohonneen verenpaineen liitännäissairauksien esiintyvyys (%) verenpainelääkettä käyttämättömillä henkilöillä, joilla verenpaine oli tyydyttävä tai kohonnut FINRISKI-tutkimuksen 25–64-vuotiaassa väestössä vuonna 2007 (tutkimusalueina Pohjois-Karjala, Pohjois-Savo, Turun-Loimaan ja Helsingin-Vantaan alueet sekä Oulun lääni).
MiehetNaiset
  1. SVP = systolinen verenpaine; DVP = diastolinen verenpaine (mmHg)
  2. 1 Ikä >55 vuotta (miehet), tupakointi, dyslipidemia (kokonaiskolesteroli >5.0 mmol/l tai LDL-kolesteroli >3.0 mmol/l tai HDL-kolesteroli <1.0 mmol/l tai triglyseridit ≥2.0 mmol/l), lähisuvussa varhain esiintyviä sydän- ja verisuonitauteja (sydäninfarkti alle 60-vuotiaana tai aivohalvaus alle 75-vuotiaana), vyötärölihavuus (vyötärön ympärys ≥102 cm miehillä tai ≥88 cm naisilla).
  3. 2 Ohitusleikkaus tai sepelvaltimoiden pallolaajennus, lääkärin toteama sydäninfarkti, aivoinfarkti, angina pectoris -oire tai sydämen vajaatoiminta.
Tyydyttävä(SVP 130–139 tai DVP 85–89)(n = 424) Lievästi kohonnut (SVP 140–159 tai DVP 90–99)(n = 537) Kohtalaisesti tai huomattavasti kohonnut(SVP ≥160 tai DVP >100)(n = 203) Tyydyttävä(SVP 130–139 tai DVP 85–89)(n = 407) Lievästi kohonnut (SVP 140–159 tai DVP 90–99)(n = 374) Kohtalaisesti tai huomattavasti kohonnut(SVP ≥160 tai DVP >100)(n = 121)
Ei muita vaaratekijöitä111721297
1 tai 2 muuta vaaratekijää343121403331
3 tai useampia muita vaaratekijöitä tai diabetes tai liitännäissairaus2556278485861

Verenpaineen mittaus

Verenpaineen mittausperiaatteet: kertamittaus vastaanotolla

Taulukko 2. Tiivistelmä verenpaineen kertamittauksen suorituksesta.
Tärkeimmät huomioitavat seikatHuomioi myös
MittariKliinisissä testeissä hyväksytty malliTarkistus ja kalibrointi joka toinen vuosi
Mansetin kumipussiOhjeen mukainen koko
  • leveys vähintään 40 %
  • pituus vähintään 80 % olkavarren ympärysmitasta
12 cm:n ja 15 cm:n levyiset mansetit riittävät useimmiten
MittauspaikkaOlkavarsiMittauksen aikana tutkittava istuu kyynärvarsi tuettuna mansetin alareuna sydämen alareunan tasolla
Mittausolosuh-teet5 minuutin lepo istuen ennen mittausta, mansetti paikalleen asetettuna
  1. Rauhallinen ympäristö
  2. Tutkittavaa ei saa kuormittaa fyysisesti eikä henkisesti
  3. Keskustelua vältettävä
MittaustapaAuskultaatiomittauksessa värttinävaltimon sykettä tunnustellen paineen nosto aluksi 30 mmHg yli systolisen paineen, sitten lasku 2–3 mmHg/sSystolinen paine = Korotkoffin äänien vaihe I, diastolinen paine = vaihe V (tai vaihe IV, jos vaihe V ei ole todettavissa)
MittaustulosPainelukemat kirjataan 2 mmHg:n tarkkuudella ja automaattimittarilla 1 mmHg:n tarkkuudellaPaine mitataan kahdesti 1–2 minuutin välein ja molemmat tulokset kirjataan

Verenpaineen vuorokausirekisteröinti

Verenpaineen kotimittaus

Verenpainetason luokittelu

Taulukko 3. Uuden potilaan ensimmäisellä mittauskerralla todettuun systoliseen (SVP) ja diastoliseen verenpaineeseen (DVP) perustuva toimenpidekaavio ja toistettuihin mittauksiin perustuva verenpainetason luokitus.
LuokkaSVP (mmHg)DVP (mmHg)Toimenpiteet
  1. 1Vähintään neljän eri päivinä tehdyn kaksoismittauksen keskiarvo
  2. 2Ks. kohta Hypertensiivinen kriisi
Optimaalinen<120ja<80Tarkistusmittaus 5 vuoden välein
"Normaali"<130ja<85Tarkistusmittaus 2 vuoden välein
"Tyydyttävä" (korkea normaali)130–139ja85–89Tarkistusmittaus 1 vuoden välein, elintapaohjeet
Kohonnut verenpaine           
Lievästi kohonnut140–159tai90–99Verenpainetason1 arviointi 2 kuukauden aikana, elintapaohjeet
Kohtalaisesti kohonnut160–179tai100–109Verenpainetason1 arviointi 1 kuukauden aikana, elintapaohjeet
Huomattavasti kohonnut≥180tai≥110Verenpainetason1 arviointi 1–2 viikon aikana, elintapaohjeet
Hypertensiivinen kriisi≥200tai≥130Välitön hoito2
Isoloitunut systolinen hypertensio≥140ja<90Verenpainetason1 arviointi kuten yllä

Perustutkimukset ja sydän- ja verisuonitautien vaaratekijöiden kartoitus

Kohde-elinvauriot

Taulukko 4. Sydämen vasemman kammion hypertrofian (LVH) diagnostiikka.
MenetelmäNormaalilöydös tai viitealue Tulkinta
  1. LV = vasen kammio
  2. IVS = kammioväliseinän paksuus loppudiastolessa
  3. LVPW = vasemman kammion loppudiastolinen paksuus
  4. LVEDD = vasemman kammion loppudiastolinen poikkimitta
  5. COPD = keuhkoahtaumatauti
  6. * Molemmat (Sokolow–Lyon ja Cornell) yhdistettynä herkkyys kohtalainen ja spesifisyys hyvä
Palpaatio: LV-kohotusei normaalistiEpäspesifinen, lihavuus vaikeuttaa arviointia
Auskultaatio: S4ei normaalistiEpäspesifinen, lihavuus ja keuhkoahtaumatauti vaikeuttavat arviointia
EKG
Sokolow–Lyon: SV1 + RV5 (tai RV6)<35 mmEpäherkkä, spesifinen*
Cornell:
miehet: QRS:n kesto (ms) × (RaVL (mm) + SV3 (mm))<2 440 mV × mmEpäherkkä, spesifinen*
naiset: QRS:n kesto (ms) × (RaVL (mm) + SV3 (mm)) + 6)<2 440 mV × mmEpäherkkä, spesifinen*
ST-T-strainei normaalistiEpäherkkä, spesifinen*
Kaikututkimus:
LV-massa (g)=1.04 × ((IVS + LVPW + LVEDD)3 – LVEDD3) – 13.6Miehet: <134 g/m2 tai <143 g/mHerkkä ja spesifinen
Naiset: <110 g/m2 tai <102 g/m

Vasemman kammion hypertrofia (LVH)

Munuaissairaus

Silmät

Subkliininen kohde-elinvaurio suurissa verisuonissa

Eksogeenisen ja sekundaarisen hypertension epäily

Aiheita erikoissairaanhoidon konsultaatioon

  • Päivystystilanne
    • Hypertensiivinen kriisi (ks. kohta edempänä)
  • Nuori potilas (kaikki alle 20-vuotiaat tai lääkehoidon aloitus alle 30-vuotiaille)
  • Sekundaariseen hypertensioon viittaavat oireet tai löydökset
    • systolinen verenpaine yli 220 mmHg tai diastolinen yli 120 mmHg
    • äkkiä alkanut tai vaikeutunut hypertensio
    • verenpaine ei hoitotavoitteessa vähintään kolmella lääkkeellä (hoitoon sitoutuminen tarkistettu)
    • munuaissairaus
      • proteinuria (yli 300 mg/l) liuskakokein todettuna
      • eGFR alle 45 ml/min
    • hypokalemia
  • Hoito-ongelmat
    • Hoitoresistentti hypertensio (verenpaine ei hoitotavoitteessa kolmesta lääkkeestä huolimatta)
    • Lääkitysvaikeudet (hoitoon sitoutuminen tarkistettu)
    • Ks. myös kohta Syyt kohonneen verenpaineen huonoon hoitovasteeseen
  • Raskaudenajan hypertensio (ks. oma kohta jäljempänä) aina.

Kohonneen verenpaineen ehkäisy ja hoito elintapamuutoksilla

Natrium

Muut ravintotekijät

Vapaa-ajan liikunta ja muu fyysinen aktiivisuus

Lihavuus

Alkoholi

Elintapamuutosten tavoitteet ja toteuttaminen

Taulukko 5. Suositus elintapojen muutoksista kohonneen verenpaineen ehkäisyssä ja osana hoitoa.
TekijäTavoite
  1. 1 Vastaa natriumimäärää 87 mmol
  2. 2 Vastaa naisilla kaliumimäärää 79 mmol ja miehillä 90 mmol
  3. 3 Tärkein lähde kovat maito- ja muut eläinrasvat
  4. 4 Tärkeimmät lähteet rasvaiset maitovalmisteet ja voi, rasvaiset leivonnaiset ja rasvaiset liharuoat
  5. 5 Osuus energian saannista
  6. 6 Tärkeimmät lähteet kala (eikosapentaeeni- ja dokosaheksaeenihappo) ja rypsiöljy (alfa-linoleenihappo)
Natriumin saanti, mg/vrk<2 000 (vastaa <5 g NaCl/vrk)1
Kaliumin saanti, mg/vrkNaiset ≥3 1002
Miehet ≥3 5002
Kalsiumin saanti, mg/vrk≥800
Tyydyttyneet3 ja trans-rasvahapot4, E %5<10
n-3-sarjan monityydyttymättömät rasvahapot6, E %5≥1
Alkoholin käyttö, g viikossa (annosta viikossa)Naiset <160 (<14)
Miehet <240 (<21)
Liikapaino ja lihavuusLiikapainoisilla (painoindeksi 25–29.9 kg/m2) ja lihavilla (painoindeksi vähintään 30 kg/m2) 5–10 %:n suuruinen painon väheneminen «Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Lihavuustutkijat ry:n asettama työryhmä. Aikuisten lihavuus. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi). 22.1.2007»64
VyötärölihavuusVyötärön ympärysmitta miehillä <102 cm ja naisilla <88 cm
Fyysinen aktiivisuusVähintään viidesti viikossa vähintään 30 minuuttia kerralla (yhtenä tai useampana jaksona) kohtalaisen kuormittavaa, esimerkiksi reipasta kävelyä
TupakointiTupakoinnin lopettaminen «Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Yleislääketieteen yhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä. Tupakointi, nikotiiniriippuvuus ja vieroitushoidot. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 1»136

Ravitsemusohjeita kohonneen verenpaineen ehkäisyyn ja hoitoon

  • Vältä suolaa ja suolaa sisältäviä mausteseoksia ruoanvalmistuksessa ja pöydässä.
  • Vältä runsassuolaisia elintarvikkeita. Valitse leivät, liha- ja kalajalosteet, juustot ja valmisruoat vähäsuolaisina (pakkausmerkintä "vähemmän suolaa" tai "suolaa vähennetty" tai sydänmerkki).
  • Syö runsaasti kasviksia, hedelmiä ja marjoja.
  • Suosi rypsiöljyjä ja rypsiöljypohjaisia kasvimargariineja.
  • Käytä rasvattomia tai vähärasvaisia maitovalmisteita.
  • Syö kalaa vähintään kahdesti viikossa.
  • Laihduta, jos olet liikapainoinen tai lihava.
  • Käytä alkoholia enintään kohtuullisesti.
  • Vältä lakritsiuutetta sisältäviä tuotteita.

Lääkehoidon vaikutukset verenpaineeseen ja siedettävyys

Lääkehoidon vaikutukset sydän- ja verisuonitautitapahtumiin

Lääkehoidon aiheet

Kohonneen verenpaineen hoidon tavoite

Lääkkeiden annokset ja yhdistelmähoito

Lääkkeen valinta eri sairausryhmissä

Taulukko 6. Esimerkkejä ensisijaisista verenpainelääkkeistä eri sairaustiloissa ja erityistilanteissa. Muokattu artikkelista «Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A ym. 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension »1.
Ei kohde-elinvaurioita
Komplisoitumaton essentiaalinen hypertensioACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja, diureetti, (beetasalpaaja)
Kohde-elinvaurio / sydän- ja verisuonisairaus
LVHACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja, diureetti
Mikroalbuminuria tai proteinuriaACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja
Munuaisten vajaatoimintaACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, diureetti (furosemidi)
Sairastettu aivohalvausACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja, diureetti
Sairastettu sydäninfarktiBeetasalpaaja, ACE:n estäjä (ATR:n salpaaja, jos ACE:n estäjä ei sovi)
Oireinen sepelvaltimotautiBeetasalpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja
Sydämen vajaatoimintaACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, diureetti, beetasalpaaja, aldosteroniantagonisti
Eteisvärinä
ToistuvaATR:n salpaaja, ACE:n estäjä, beetasalpaaja
PysyväBeetasalpaaja, verapamiili (huom. ei näiden kahden yhteiskäyttöä)
Perifeerinen valtimotautiACE:n estäjä, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja
Erityistilanteet
DiabetesACE:n estäjä, ATR:n salpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja, diureetti
Raskaudenaikainen hypertensioLabetaloli-beetasalpaaja, kalsiumkanavan salpaaja
AstmaKalsiumkanavan salpaaja, ATR:n salpaaja, diureetti

Essentiaalinen hypertensio

Diabetes

Sepelvaltimotauti

Sydämen vajaatoiminta

Rytmi- ja johtumishäiriöt

Perifeerinen raajojen valtimosairaus

Aivoverenkierron sairaudet ja kognitiiviset toiminnat

Munuaistaudit

Astma ja keuhkoahtaumatauti

Raskausajan kohonnut verenpaine

Hypertensiivinen kriisi

  • Hypertensiivinen kriisi määritellään verenpaineen huomattavaksi nousuksi, jossa systolinen paine on yli 200 mmHg tai diastolinen paine yli 130 mmHg.
  • Se jaetaan vaikeusasteen mukaan
    • hypertensiiviseen hätätilanteeseen ja
    • kiireellistä hoitoa vaativaan tilaan.
  • Hypertensiivinen hätätilanne
    • Keskeisiä kohde-elinlöydöksiä ja -oireita ovat
      • sydäniskemia
      • sydämen vajaatoiminta
      • aivo-oireet
      • munuaisten nopeasti paheneva vajaatoiminta
      • verenvuodot silmän verkkokalvoissa
      • aortan dissekoituminen.
    • Hoidon tavoitteena on alentaa verenpainetta turvalliselle tasolle kohde-elinten verenkiertoa vaarantamatta. Potilaat kuuluvat päivystystapauksina erikoissairaanhoitoon.
    • Hoidossa tarvitaan useimmiten suoneen annettavaa lääkitystä.
  • Avohoidossa voidaan hypertensiivisen kriisin hoitoon käyttää keskipitkä- tai pitkävaikutteista kalsiumkanavan salpaajaa. Sitä ei saa pureskella «Hypertensiivisen hätätilan ja kohonneen verenpaineen kiireellisen tilan hoito»17.
  • Hypertensiivisen kriisin kiireellisessä tilassa potilaat ovat yleensä oireettomia ja vaikeat kohde-elinlöydökset puuttuvat.

Yli 80-vuotiaat

Syyt kohonneen verenpaineen huonoon hoitovasteeseen

Lääkityksen vähentäminen ja lopettaminen

Seuranta

Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Verenpaineyhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä

Kohonnut verenpaine -suosituksen historiatiedot «Kohonnut verenpaine, Käypä hoito -suosituksen historiatiedot»18

Puheenjohtaja:

Antti Jula, LKT, dosentti, sisätautien erikoislääkäri, ylilääkäri; Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos, Turku

Jäsenet:

Ilkka Kantola, LKT, dosentti, sisätautien erikoislääkäri, hallinnollinen osastonylilääkäri; TYKS:n sisätautien klinikka

Seppo Lehto, LT, dosentti, sisätautien ja kardiologian erikoislääkäri, vastaava ylilääkäri; KYS:n sisätautien klinikka

Eero Mervaala, LT, professori; Helsingin yliopiston biolääketieteen laitos, farmakologia

Kaj Metsärinne, LKT, dosentti, sisätautien ja nefrologian erikoislääkäri, ylilääkäri; TYKS:n sisätautien klinikka

Ilkka Pörsti, LT, professori, sisätautien ja nefrologian erikoislääkäri, osastonylilääkäri; Tampereen yliopisto ja TAYS:n sisätautien klinikka

Timo Strandberg, professori, sisätautien ja geriatrian erikoislääkäri; Oulun yliopiston terveystieteiden laitos, geriatria ja OYS:n yleislääketieteen yksikkö

Ilkka Tikkanen, LKT, dosentti, sisätautien ja nefrologian erikoislääkäri, osastonylilääkäri; HYKS:n sisätautien klinikka

Tuula Tikkanen, LKT, dosentti, sisätautien ja yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri, apulaisylilääkäri; Laakson sairaala, Helsinki

Katriina Kukkonen-Harjula, LKT, dosentti, liikuntalääketieteen erikoislääkäri, vanhempi tutkija; UKK-instituutti, Tampere (Käypä hoito -toimittaja)

Asiantuntijat

Frej Fyhrquist, LKT, professori, sisätautien erikoislääkäri; Helsingin yliopiston sisätautien klinikka

Risto Kaaja, LKT, professori, sisätautien erikoislääkäri; Turun yliopisto ja Satakunnan keskussairaala

Mika Kastarinen, LT, sisätautien ja nefrologian erikoislääkäri; KYS:n sisätautien klinikka

Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, LKT, professori, yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri; Oulun yliopiston kansanterveystieteen ja yleislääketieteen laitos

Pirjo Koivisto, MMM, ravitsemusasiantuntija; Suomen Sydänliitto ry, Helsinki

Eino Luostarinen, LL, yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri, hallinnon pätevyys, ylilääkäri-aluekouluttaja; Peruspalvelukeskus OIVA, Asikkalan terveysasema

Markku S. Nieminen, LKT, professori, sisätautien ja kardiologian erikoislääkäri, ylilääkäri; HYKS:n Meilahden sairaala, sisätautien toimiala

Teemu Niiranen, LT, apulaislääkäri; TYKS:n sisätautien klinikka

Leo Niskanen, LKT, professori, sisätautien ja endokrinologian erikoislääkäri; KYS:n sisätautien klinikka

Jyrki Olkinuora, LL, sisätautien erikoislääkäri; Munkkivuoren Lääkärikeskus Dextra, Helsinki

Heikki Ruskoaho, LKT, professori; Oulun yliopiston farmakologian ja toksikologian laitos

Jorma Takala, LKT, emeritusprofessori, yleislääketieteen erikoislääkäri; Kuopion yliopisto

Jaakko Tuomilehto, LKT, professori; Helsingin yliopiston kansanterveystieteen laitos

Sidonnaisuudet

Antti Jula: Matkustanut ja osallistunut kahteen ulkomaiseen kongressiin kahden eri lääkealan yrityksen maksamana.

Ilkka Kantola: Osallistunut ulkomaisiin kongresseihin lääkealan yritysten rahoituksella (Bayer, Berlin-Chemie Menarini, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Genzyme, LeirasFinland, Novartis, Shire). Osallistunut lääkealan yritysten järjestämiin koulutustilaisuuksiin kutsuttuna luennoitsijana (Abbott, AstraZeneca, Bayer, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Genzyme, LeirasFinland, Orion, Servier Finland, Shire, Suomen MSD). Toiminut asiantuntijana lääkealan yritysten tieteellisen neuvottelukunnan jäsenenä (Boehringer-Ingelheim, Shire). Tehnyt lääketutkimusta korvausta vastaan (Boehringer-Ingelheim, Novartis, Sanofi-Aventis, Suomen MSD).

Seppo Lehto: Luennoinut lääkealan yritysten tilaisuuksissa (AstraZeneca, Suomen MSD, Boehringer Ingelheim, Pfizer, Server, Novartis). Osallistunut kongresseihin lääkealan yritysten kustantamana (Bayer, Leiras, Pfizer, Novartis, Suomen MSD). Advisory Boardin jäsen (Suomen MSD, Pfizer).

Eero Mervaala: Toiminut asiantuntijalääkärinä lääkealan yritykselle (Yhtyneet Medix Laboratoriot). Suomen Verenpaineyhdistyksen puheenjohtaja. Kutsuttuna luennoitsijana lääkealan yrityksen järjestämissä/tukemissa koulutustilaisuuksissa (AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Leiras, Novartis).

Kaj Metsärinne: Kutsuttuna luennoitsijana lääkealan yritysten järjestämissä tilaisuuksissa (Abbott Oy, Amgen Oy, Astellas Pharma Oy, Baxter Oy, Boehringer Ingelheim Oy, Genzyme Oy, Novartis Oy, Roche Oy, Suomen MSD Oy). Osallistunut kongressimatkoille lääkealan yritysten kutsumana (Baxter Oy, Genzyme Oy, Fresenius Suomi Oy, Swedish Orphan Oy).

Ilkka Pörsti: Osallistunut ulkomaisiin kongresseihin lääkealan yritysten rahoituksella (Abbott Oy, Amgen Oy, Astellas Pharma Oy, Novartis Finland Oy, Bayer Schering Pharma Oy). Toiminut asiantuntijana lääkealan yrityksen tieteellisen neuvottelukunnan jäsenenä (Abbott Oy).

Timo Strandberg: Luennoinut terveydenhuollon ja/tai lääkealan yritysten koulutustilaisuuksissa ja osallistunut niiden suunnitteluun. Osallistunut ulkomaisiin kongresseihin lääkealan yritysten kustantamana. Toiminut asiantuntijana lääkealan yrityksille ja terveydenhuollon toimijoille.

Ilkka Tikkanen: Kutsuttuna luennoitsijana/asiantuntijana lääkealan yritysten järjestämissä/tukemissa koulutustilaisuuksissa. Osallistunut ulkomaisiin kongresseihin lääkealan yritysten kustantamana. Toiminut tutkimuksesta vastaavana henkilönä kliinisissä lääketutkimuksissa.

Tuula Tikkanen: Pitänyt lääketieteen alaan liittyviä luentoja/osallistunut koulutusmateriaalien valmisteluun yhteistyössä lääkealan yritysten kanssa.

Katriina Kukkonen-Harjula: Ks. www.kaypahoito.fi «http://www.kaypahoito.fi»9 / Yhteystiedot / Toimitus / Lisätiedot

Vastuun rajaus

Käypä hoito -suositukset ovat parhaiden asiantuntijoiden laatimia yhteenvetoja yksittäisten sairauksien diagnostiikan ja hoidon vaikuttavuudesta. Ne eivät korvaa lääkärin tai muun terveydenhuollon ammattilaisen omaa arviota yksittäisen potilaan parhaasta mahdollisesta diagnostiikasta ja hoidosta hoitopäätöksiä tehtäessä.

Tiedonhakukäytäntö

Systemaattinen kirjallisuushaku on hoitosuosituksen perusta. Lue lisää artikkelista khk00007

Kirjallisuutta

  1. Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A ym. 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens 2007;25:1105-87 «PMID: 17563527»PubMed
  2. Mancia G, Laurent S, Agabiti-Rosei E ym. Reappraisal of European guidelines on hypertension management: a European Society of Hypertension Task Force document. J Hypertens 2009;27:2121-58 «PMID: 19838131»PubMed
  3. Booth N, Jula A, Aronen P ym. Cost-effectiveness analysis of guidelines for antihypertensive care in Finland. BMC Health Serv Res 2007;7:172 «PMID: 17958883»PubMed
  4. Intersalt: an international study of electrolyte excretion and blood pressure. Results for 24 hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. BMJ 1988;297:319-28 «PMID: 3416162»PubMed
  5. Peltonen M, Harald K, Männistö S ym. Kansallinen FINRISKI 2007 -terveystutkimus. Tutkimuksen toteutus ja tulokset. Kansanterveyslaitoksen julkaisuja B34/2008. http://www.ktl.fi/portal/2920
  6. Wolf HK, Tuomilehto J, Kuulasmaa K ym. Blood pressure levels in the 41 populations of the WHO MONICA Project. J Hum Hypertens 1997;11:733-42 «PMID: 9416984»PubMed
  7. Lawes CM, Vander Hoorn S, Law MR ym. Blood pressure and the global burden of disease 2000. Part 1: estimates of blood pressure levels. J Hypertens 2006;24:413-22 «PMID: 16467639»PubMed
  8. Wolf-Maier K, Cooper RS, Banegas JR ym. Hypertension prevalence and blood pressure levels in 6 European countries, Canada, and the United States. JAMA 2003;289:2363-9 «PMID: 12746359»PubMed
  9. Sivenius J, Tuomilehto J, Immonen-Räihä P ym. Continuous 15-year decrease in incidence and mortality of stroke in Finland: the FINSTROKE study. Stroke 2004;35:420-5 «PMID: 14707234»PubMed
  10. Salomaa V, Ketonen M, Koukkunen H ym. Trends in coronary events in Finland during 1983-1997. The FINAMI study. Eur Heart J 2003;24:311-9 «PMID: 12581678»PubMed
  11. Kastarinen MJ, Antikainen RL, Laatikainen TK ym. Trends in hypertension care in eastern and south-western Finland during 1982-2002. J Hypertens 2006;24:829-36 «PMID: 16612243»PubMed
  12. Kastarinen M, Antikainen R, Peltonen M ym. Prevalence, awareness and treatment of hypertension in Finland during 1982-2007. J Hypertens 2009;27:1552-9 «PMID: 19412128»PubMed
  13. Aromaa A, Koskinen S (toim.) Terveys ja toimintakyky Suomessa. Terveys 2000 -tutkimuksen perustulokset. Kansanterveyslaitoksen julkaisuja B3/2002. Helsinki 2002
  14. Antikainen RL, Moltchanov VA, Chukwuma C Sr ym. Trends in the prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension: the WHO MONICA Project. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2006;13:13-29 «PMID: 16449860»PubMed
  15. Paturi M, Tapanainen H, Reinivuo H, Pietinen P (toim.) Finravinto 2007 -tutkimus. The National FINDIET 2007 Survey. Kansanterveyslaitoksen julkaisuja B23/2008. http://www.ktl.fi/portal/2920
  16. Kastarinen M, Laatikainen T, Salomaa V ym. Trends in lifestyle factors affecting blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive Finns during 1982-2002. J Hypertens 2007;25:299-305 «PMID: 17211236»PubMed
  17. Laatikainen T, Pietinen P, Valsta L ym. Sodium in the Finnish diet: 20-year trends in urinary sodium excretion among the adult population. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:965-70 «PMID: 16482074»PubMed
  18. Reinivuo H, Valsta LM, Laatikainen T ym. Sodium in the Finnish diet: II trends in dietary sodium intake and comparison between intake and 24-h excretion of sodium. Eur J Clin Nutr 2006;60:1160-7 «PMID: 16639417»PubMed
  19. Montonen J, Männistö S, Sarkkola C ym. Ravinnonsaannin väestöryhmittäiset erot. Terveys 2000 -tutkimus. Kansanterveyslaitoksen julkaisuja B38/2008. http://www.terveys2000.fi
  20. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J ym. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, Prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet 1990;335:765-74 «PMID: 1969518»PubMed
  21. Alderman MH. Blood pressure management: individualized treatment based on absolute risk and the potential for benefit. Ann Intern Med 1993;119:329-35 «PMID: 8328743»PubMed
  22. Lewington S, Clarke R, Qizilbash N ym. Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet 2002;360:1903-13 «PMID: 12493255»PubMed
  23. Tsevat J, Weinstein MC, Williams LW ym. Expected gains in life expectancy from various coronary heart disease risk factor modifications. Circulation 1991;83:1194-201 «PMID: 2013141»PubMed
  24. Kiiskinen U, Vartiainen E, Puska P ym. Long-term cost and life-expectancy consequences of hypertension. J Hypertens 1998;16:1103-12 «PMID: 9794712»PubMed
  25. Anderson KM, Wilson PW, Odell PM ym. An updated coronary risk profile. A statement for health professionals. Circulation 1991;83:356-62 «PMID: 1984895»PubMed
  26. Kannel WB. Blood pressure as a cardiovascular risk factor: prevention and treatment. JAMA 1996;275:1571-6 «PMID: 8622248»PubMed
  27. Mancia G, De Backer G, Dominiczak A ym. 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Eur Heart J 2007;28:1462-536 «PMID: 17562668»PubMed
  28. Kuulasmaa K, Tunstall-Pedoe H, Dobson A ym. Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary-event rates across the WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet 2000;355:675-87 «PMID: 10703799»PubMed
  29. Puska P, Vartiainen E, Laatikainen T, Jousilahti P, Paavola M (toim.). The North Karelia Project: From North Karelia to national action. Terveyden ja hyvinvoinnin laitos. Helsinki University Printing House, Helsinki 2009. 309 s. www.thl.fi/thl-client/pdfs/731beafd-b544-42b2-b853-baa87db6a046
  30. Salomaa V, Ketonen M, Koukkunen H ym. Decline in out-of-hospital coronary heart disease deaths has contributed the main part to the overall decline in coronary heart disease mortality rates among persons 35 to 64 years of age in Finland: the FINAMI study. Circulation 2003;108:691-6 «PMID: 12885751»PubMed
  31. Vartiainen E, Puska P, Pekkanen J ym. Changes in risk factors explain changes in mortality from ischaemic heart disease in Finland. BMJ 1994;309:23-7 «PMID: 8044063»PubMed
  32. Alexander J, Anderssen SA, Aro A ym. Sodium as salt. Kirjassa: Nordic nutrition recommendations 2004. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. 4. painos. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen. Nord 2004;13:333-48
  33. O'Brien E, Waeber B, Parati G ym. Blood pressure measuring devices: recommendations of the European Society of Hypertension. BMJ 2001;322:531-6 «PMID: 11230071»PubMed
  34. EN 1060–1 European Standard 1060–1 November 1995. Non-invasive sphygmomanometers -Part 1: General requirements
  35. Maxwell MH, Waks AU, Schroth PC ym. Error in blood-pressure measurement due to incorrect cuff size in obese patients. Lancet 1982;2:33-6 «PMID: 6123760»PubMed
  36. Pickering TG, Hall JE, Appel LJ ym. Recommendations for blood pressure measurement in humans and experimental animals: Part 1: blood pressure measurement in humans: a statement for professionals from the Subcommittee of Professional and Public Education of the American Heart Association Council on High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 2005;45:142-61 «PMID: 15611362»PubMed
  37. Jula A, Puukka P, Karanko H. Multiple clinic and home blood pressure measurements versus ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Hypertension 1999;34:261-6 «PMID: 10454451»PubMed
  38. Kantola I, Vesalainen R, Kangassalo K ym. Bell or diaphragm in the measurement of blood pressure? J Hypertens 2005;23:499-503 «PMID: 15716689»PubMed
  39. McAlister FA, Straus SE. Evidence based treatment of hypertension. Measurement of blood pressure: an evidence based review. BMJ 2001;322:908-11 «PMID: 11302909»PubMed
  40. Lane D, Beevers M, Barnes N ym. Inter-arm differences in blood pressure: when are they clinically significant? J Hypertens 2002;20:1089-95 «PMID: 12023677»PubMed
  41. Kimura A, Hashimoto J, Watabe D ym. Patient characteristics and factors associated with inter-arm difference of blood pressure measurements in a general population in Ohasama, Japan. J Hypertens 2004;22:2277-83 «PMID: 15614021»PubMed
  42. Appel LJ, Stason WB. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and blood pressure self-measurement in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1993;118:867-82 «PMID: 8093115»PubMed
  43. Parati G, Stergiou GS, Asmar R ym. European Society of Hypertension guidelines for blood pressure monitoring at home: a summary report of the Second International Consensus Conference on Home Blood Pressure Monitoring. J Hypertens 2008;26:1505-26 «PMID: 18622223»PubMed
  44. Pickering TG, Miller NH, Ogedegbe G ym. Call to action on use and reimbursement for home blood pressure monitoring: a joint scientific statement from the American Heart Association, American Society Of Hypertension, and Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. Hypertension 2008;52:10-29
  45. Niiranen TJ, Jula AM, Kantola IM ym. Home-measured blood pressure is more strongly associated with electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy than is clinic blood pressure: the Finn-HOME study. J Hum Hypertens 2007;21:788-94 «PMID: 17637793»PubMed
  46. Niiranen T, Jula A, Kantola I ym. Home-measured blood pressure is more strongly associated with atherosclerosis than clinic blood pressure: the Finn-HOME Study. J Hypertens 2007;25:1225-31 «PMID: 17563535»PubMed
  47. Kumpusalo E, Teho A, Laitila R ym. Janus faces of the white coat effect: blood pressure not only rises, it may also fall. J Hum Hypertens 2002;16:725-8 «PMID: 12420197»PubMed
  48. Thijs L, Staessen JA, Celis H ym. Reference values for self-recorded blood pressure: a meta-analysis of summary data. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:481-8 «PMID: 9508226»PubMed
  49. Staessen JA, O'Brien ET, Amery AK ym. Ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive patients: results from an international database. J Hypertens 1994;12;1-12
  50. O'Brien E, Coats A, Owens P ym. Use and interpretation of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: recommendations of the British hypertension society. BMJ 2000;320:1128-34 «PMID: 10775227»PubMed
  51. Niiranen TJ, Jula AM, Kantola IM ym. Prevalence and determinants of isolated clinic hypertension in the Finnish population: the Finn-HOME study. J Hypertens 2006;24:463-70 «PMID: 16467649»PubMed
  52. Ugajin T, Hozawa A, Ohkubo T ym. White-coat hypertension as a risk factor for the development of home hypertension: the Ohasama study. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1541-6 «PMID: 16009871»PubMed
  53. Ohkubo T, Kikuya M, Metoki H ym. Prognosis of "masked" hypertension and "white-coat" hypertension detected by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring 10-year follow-up from the Ohasama study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;46:508-15 «PMID: 16053966»PubMed
  54. Verdecchia P, Reboldi GP, Angeli F ym. Short- and long-term incidence of stroke in white-coat hypertension. Hypertension 2005;45:203-8 «PMID: 15596572»PubMed
  55. Niiranen TJ, Jula AM, Kantola IM ym. Comparison of agreement between clinic and home-measured blood pressure in the Finnish population: the Finn-HOME Study. J Hypertens 2006;24:1549-55 «PMID: 16877957»PubMed
  56. Mancia G, Facchetti R, Bombelli M ym. Long-term risk of mortality associated with selective and combined elevation in office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure. Hypertension 2006;47:846-53 «PMID: 16567588»PubMed
  57. Hansen TW, Jeppesen J, Rasmussen S ym. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and risk of cardiovascular disease: a population based study. Am J Hypertens 2006;19:243-50 «PMID: 16500508»PubMed
  58. Wang GL, Li Y, Staessen JA ym. Anthropometric and lifestyle factors associated with white-coat, masked and sustained hypertension in a Chinese population. J Hypertens 2007;25:2398-405 «PMID: 17984660»PubMed
  59. Björklund K, Lind L, Zethelius B ym. Isolated ambulatory hypertension predicts cardiovascular morbidity in elderly men. Circulation 2003;107:1297-302 «PMID: 12628951»PubMed
  60. Sega R, Trocino G, Lanzarotti A ym. Alterations of cardiac structure in patients with isolated office, ambulatory, or home hypertension: Data from the general population (Pressione Arteriose Monitorate E Loro Associazioni [PAMELA] Study). Circulation 2001;104:1385-92 «PMID: 11560854»PubMed
  61. Bobrie G, Chatellier G, Genes N ym. Cardiovascular prognosis of "masked hypertension" detected by blood pressure self-measurement in elderly treated hypertensive patients. JAMA 2004;291:1342-9 «PMID: 15026401»PubMed
  62. Tikkanen T, Lindgren L, Tikkanen I, Fyhrquist F. Pseudohypertensio – harvinainen vai yleinen verenpaineen hoidon pulmatilanne? Duodecim 1995;111:858-62 «http://www.duodecimlehti.fi/web/guest/etusivu/artikkeli?tunnus=duo50204»10
  63. Eurooppalainen suositus. Sydän- ja verisuonitautien ehkäisy käytännön lääkärintyössä: Yhteenveto. Suom Lääkäril 2008;63(49, liite):1-51
  64. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Lihavuustutkijat ry:n asettama työryhmä. Aikuisten lihavuus. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi). 22.1.2007
  65. Kumpusalo E, Lappi J, Miettinen H ym. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in Finnish primary health care hypertensive patients. J Hum Hypertens 2001;15:255-8 «PMID: 11319673»PubMed
  66. Liebson PR, Grandits G, Prineas R ym. Echocardiographic correlates of left ventricular structure among 844 mildly hypertensive men and women in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Circulation 1993;87:476-86 «PMID: 8425295»PubMed
  67. Kupari M, Koskinen P, Virolainen J. Correlates of left ventricular mass in a population sample aged 36 to 37 years. Focus on lifestyle and salt intake. Circulation 1994;89:1041-50 «PMID: 8124789»PubMed
  68. Ganau A, Devereux RB, Pickering TG ym. Relation of left ventricular hemodynamic load and contractile performance to left ventricular mass in hypertension. Circulation 1990;81:25-36 «PMID: 2297829»PubMed
  69. Messerli FH. Clinical determinants and manifestations of left ventricular hypertrophy. Kirjassa: Messerli FH, toim. The heart and hypertension. New York: Yorke Medical Books, 1987:219-30
  70. Frohlich ED, Apstein C, Chobanian AV ym. The heart in hypertension. N Engl J Med 1992;327:998-1008 «PMID: 1518549»PubMed
  71. Messerli FH, Aepfelbacher FC. Hypertension and left-ventricular hypertrophy. Cardiol Clin 1995;13:549-57 «PMID: 8565018»PubMed
  72. Morgan HE, Baker KM. Cardiac hypertrophy. Mechanical, neural, and endocrine dependence. Circulation 1991;83:13-25 «PMID: 1824620»PubMed
  73. Johnston CI. Tissue angiotensin converting enzyme in cardiac and vascular hypertrophy, repair, and remodeling. Hypertension 1994;23:258-68 «PMID: 8307637»PubMed
  74. Sokolow M, Lyon TP. The ventricular complex in left ventricular hypertrophy as obtained by unipolar precordial and limb leads. Am Heart J 1949;37:161-86 «PMID: 18107386»PubMed
  75. Molloy TJ, Okin PM, Devereux RB ym. Electrocardiographic detection of left ventricular hypertrophy by the simple QRS voltage-duration product. J Am Coll Cardiol 1992;20:1180-6 «PMID: 1401620»PubMed
  76. Schillaci G, Verdecchia P, Borgioni C ym. Improved electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol 1994;74:714-9 «PMID: 7942532»PubMed
  77. Okin PM, Devereux RB, Jern S ym. Baseline characteristics in relation to electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive patients: the Losartan intervention for endpoint reduction (LIFE) in hypertension study. The Life Study Investigators. Hypertension 2000;36:766-73 «PMID: 11082141»PubMed
  78. Koren MJ, Devereux RB, Casale PN ym. Relation of left ventricular mass and geometry to morbidity and mortality in uncomplicated essential hypertension. Ann Intern Med 1991;114:45-52
  79. Casale PN, Devereux RB, Milner M ym. Value of echocardiographic measurement of left ventricular mass in predicting cardiovascular morbid events in hypertensive men. Ann Intern Med 1986;105:173-8 «PMID: 2942070»PubMed
  80. Devereux RB, Roman MJ, Ganau A ym. Cardiac and arterial hypertrophy and atherosclerosis in hypertension. Hypertension 1994;23:802-9 «PMID: 8206580»PubMed
  81. Gall MA, Borch-Johnsen K, Hougaard P ym. Albuminuria and poor glycemic control predict mortality in NIDDM. Diabetes 1995;44:1303-9 «PMID: 7589828»PubMed
  82. Pontremoli R, Sofia A, Ravera M ym. Prevalence and clinical correlates of microalbuminuria in essential hypertension: the MAGIC Study. Microalbuminuria: A Genoa Investigation on Complications. Hypertension 1997;30:1135-43 «PMID: 9369267»PubMed
  83. Rodicio JL, Campo C, Ruilope LM. Microalbuminuria in essential hypertension. Kidney Int Suppl 1998;68:S51-4 «PMID: 9839284»PubMed
  84. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Nefrologiyhdistyksen asettama työryhmä. Diabeettinen nefropatia. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 22.8.2007
  85. Anavekar NS, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ ym. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2004;351:1285-95 «PMID: 15385655»PubMed
  86. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin, Suomen Silmälääkäriyhdistyksen ja Diabetesliiton lääkärineuvoston asettama työryhmä. Diabeettinen retinopatia. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 12.06.2006
  87. Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R ym. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2001;37:1236-41 «PMID: 11358934»PubMed
  88. Willum-Hansen T, Staessen JA, Torp-Pedersen C ym. Prognostic value of aortic pulse wave velocity as index of arterial stiffness in the general population. Circulation 2006;113:664-70 «PMID: 16461839»PubMed
  89. Bots ML, Hoes AW, Koudstaal PJ ym. Common carotid intima-media thickness and risk of stroke and myocardial infarction: the Rotterdam Study. Circulation 1997;96:1432-7 «PMID: 9315528»PubMed
  90. Hodis HN, Mack WJ, LaBree L ym. The role of carotid arterial intima-media thickness in predicting clinical coronary events. Ann Intern Med 1998;128:262-9 «PMID: 9471928»PubMed
  91. O'Leary DH, Polak JF, Kronmal RA ym. Carotid-artery intima and media thickness as a risk factor for myocardial infarction and stroke in older adults. Cardiovascular Health Study Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1999;340:14-22 «PMID: 9878640»PubMed
  92. Cuspidi C, Ambrosioni E, Mancia G ym. Role of echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography in stratifying risk in patients with essential hypertension: the Assessment of Prognostic Risk Observational Survey. J Hypertens 2002;20:1307-14 «PMID: 12131527»PubMed
  93. Feringa HH, Bax JJ, van Waning VH ym. The long-term prognostic value of the resting and postexercise ankle-brachial index. Arch Intern Med 2006;166:529-35 «PMID: 16534039»PubMed
  94. Resnick HE, Lindsay RS, McDermott MM ym. Relationship of high and low ankle brachial index to all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality: the Strong Heart Study. Circulation 2004;109:733-9 «PMID: 14970108»PubMed
  95. Tikkanen T. Lääkkeiden ja nautintoaineiden aiheuttama hypertensio. Käyt Lääk 1998;41:88–94
  96. Siebenhofer A, Horvath K, Jeitler K ym. Long-term effects of weight-reducing drugs in hypertensive patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009;3:CD007654 «PMID: 19588440»PubMed
  97. Aw TJ, Haas SJ, Liew D ym. Meta-analysis of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and their effects on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:490-6 «PMID: 15710786»PubMed
  98. Gyamlani G, Geraci SA. Secondary hypertension due to drugs and toxins. South Med J 2007;100:692-9; quiz 700, 708 «PMID: 17639749»PubMed
  99. Tikkanen I, Tikkanen T. Sekundaariset hypertensiot. Kirjassa: Kardiologia, 2. painos. Toim. J. Heikkilä, M. Kupari, J. Airaksinen, H. Huikuri, M.S. Nieminen, K. Peuhkurinen. Kustannus Oy Duodecim 2008
  100. Vartiainen E, Laatikainen T, Tapaninen H ym. Suomalaisten sydän- ja verisuonitautien riskitekijät FINRISKI-tutkimuksessa 1982-2002. Suom Lääkäril 2003;58:4099-106
  101. Kastarinen MJ, Puska PM, Korhonen MH ym. Non-pharmacological treatment of hypertension in primary health care: a 2-year open randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention against hypertension in eastern Finland. J Hypertens 2002;20:2505-12 «PMID: 12473876»PubMed
  102. Elliott P, Stamler J, Nichols R ym. Intersalt revisited: further analyses of 24 hour sodium excretion and blood pressure within and across populations. Intersalt Cooperative Research Group. BMJ 1996;312:1249-53 «PMID: 8634612»PubMed
  103. Perry IJ, Beevers DG. Salt intake and stroke: a possible direct effect. J Hum Hypertens 1992;6:23-5 «PMID: 1583626»PubMed
  104. Yamori Y, Nara Y, Mizushima S ym. Nutritional factors for stroke and major cardiovascular diseases: international epidemiological comparison of dietary prevention. Health Rep 1994;6:22-7 «PMID: 7919085»PubMed
  105. Alderman MH, Cohen H, Madhavan S. Dietary sodium intake and mortality: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). Lancet 1998;351:781-5 «PMID: 9519949»PubMed
  106. Tuomilehto J, Jousilahti P, Rastenyte D ym. Urinary sodium excretion and cardiovascular mortality in Finland: a prospective study. Lancet 2001;357:848-51 «PMID: 11265954»PubMed
  107. He FJ, MacGregor GA. Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004;1:CD004937 «PMID: 15266549»PubMed
  108. Cook NR, Cutler JA, Obarzanek E ym. Long term effects of dietary sodium reduction on cardiovascular disease outcomes: observational follow-up of the trials of hypertension prevention (TOHP). BMJ 2007;334:885-8 «PMID: 17449506»PubMed
  109. Khaw KT, Barrett-Connor E. Dietary potassium and stroke-associated mortality. A 12-year prospective population study. N Engl J Med 1987;316:235-40 «PMID: 3796701»PubMed
  110. Ulbricht TL, Southgate DA. Coronary heart disease: seven dietary factors. Lancet 1991;338:985-92 «PMID: 1681350»PubMed
  111. Aro A, Pietinen P, Valsta LM ym. Lack of effect on blood pressure by low fat diets with different fatty acid compositions. J Hum Hypertens 1998;12:383-9 «PMID: 9705040»PubMed
  112. Puska P, Iacono JM, Nissinen A ym. Controlled, randomised trial of the effect of dietary fat on blood pressure. Lancet 1983;1:1-5 «PMID: 6129364»PubMed
  113. Rasmussen BM, Vessby B, Uusitupa M ym. Effects of dietary saturated, monounsaturated, and n-3 fatty acids on blood pressure in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 2006;83:221-6 «PMID: 16469978»PubMed
  114. Svetkey LP, Simons-Morton D, Vollmer WM ym. Effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure: subgroup analysis of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) randomized clinical trial. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:285-93 «PMID: 9989541»PubMed
  115. Niinikoski H, Jula A, Viikari J ym. Blood pressure is lower in children and adolescents with a low-saturated-fat diet since infancy: the special turku coronary risk factor intervention project. Hypertension 2009;53:918-24 «PMID: 19364991»PubMed
  116. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008. www.health.gov/paguidelines/Report/pdf/CommitteeReport.pdf (683 s.)
  117. Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R ym. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Exercise and hypertension. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2004;36:533-53 «PMID: 15076798»PubMed
  118. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Be Active, Healthy, and Happy! ODPHP Publication No. U0036, October 2008. www.health.gov/paguidelines/pdf/paguide.pdf (63 s.)
  119. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin johtoryhmän asettama työryhmä. Liikunta. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 9.10.2008.
  120. Neter JE, Stam BE, Kok FJ ym. Influence of weight reduction on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 2003;42:878-84 «PMID: 12975389»PubMed
  121. Horvath K, Jeitler K, Siering U ym. Long-term effects of weight-reducing interventions in hypertensive patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Arch Intern Med 2008;168:571-80 «PMID: 18362248»PubMed
  122. Marmot MG, Elliott P, Shipley MJ ym. Alcohol and blood pressure: the INTERSALT study. BMJ 1994;308:1263-7 «PMID: 7802765»PubMed
  123. Gill JS, Shipley MJ, Tsementzis SA ym. Alcohol consumption--a risk factor for hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic stroke. Am J Med 1991;90:489-97 «PMID: 2012089»PubMed
  124. Puddey IB, Parker M, Beilin LJ ym. Effects of alcohol and caloric restrictions on blood pressure and serum lipids in overweight men. Hypertension 1992;20:533-41 «PMID: 1356922»PubMed
  125. Rimm EB, Klatsky A, Grobbee D ym. Review of moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of coronary heart disease: is the effect due to beer, wine, or spirits. BMJ 1996;312:731-6 «PMID: 8605457»PubMed
  126. Spence JD, Barnett PA, Linden W ym. Lifestyle modifications to prevent and control hypertension. 7. Recommendations on stress management. Canadian Hypertension Society, Canadian Coalition for High Blood Pressure Prevention and Control, Laboratory Centre for Disease Control at Health Canada, Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada. CMAJ 1999;160:S46-50 «PMID: 10333853»PubMed
  127. Nakao M, Yano E, Nomura S ym. Blood pressure-lowering effects of biofeedback treatment in hypertension: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertens Res 2003;26:37-46 «PMID: 12661911»PubMed
  128. Canter PH, Ernst E. Insufficient evidence to conclude whether or not Transcendental Meditation decreases blood pressure: results of a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Hypertens 2004;22:2049-54 «PMID: 15480084»PubMed
  129. Dickinson H, Campbell F, Beyer F ym. Relaxation therapies for the management of primary hypertension in adults: a Cochrane review. J Hum Hypertens 2008;22:809-20 «PMID: 18548088»PubMed
  130. Lee MS, Pittler MH, Guo R ym. Qigong for hypertension: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials. J Hypertens 2007;25:1525-32 «PMID: 17620944»PubMed
  131. Yeh GY, Wang C, Wayne PM ym. The effect of tai chi exercise on blood pressure: a systematic review. Prev Cardiol 2008;11:82-9 «PMID: 18401235»PubMed
  132. Lee H, Kim SY, Park J ym. Acupuncture for lowering blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens 2009;22:122-8 «PMID: 19008863»PubMed
  133. Evira (Elintarviketurvallisuusvirasto). Pakkausmerkintäopas. Eviran ohje 17005/3, 2008. http://www.evira.fi/uploads/WebShopFiles/1232542898044.pdf
  134. Jula A, Seppänen R, Aaltonen T. Kohonneen verenpaineen seurannassa olevien 35–54-vuotiaiden turkulaisten elintavat. Suom Lääkäril 1997;52:3201-6
  135. Clinical Guidelines on the Identification, Evaluation, and Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults--The Evidence Report. National Institutes of Health. Obes Res 1998;6 Suppl 2:51S-209S «PMID: 9813653»PubMed
  136. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Yleislääketieteen yhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä. Tupakointi, nikotiiniriippuvuus ja vieroitushoidot. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 1.12.2006
  137. Law MR, Wald NJ, Morris JK ym. Value of low dose combination treatment with blood pressure lowering drugs: analysis of 354 randomised trials. BMJ 2003;326:1427 «PMID: 12829555»PubMed
  138. Turnbull F, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet 2003;362:1527-35 «PMID: 14615107»PubMed
  139. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG ym. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. HOT Study Group. Lancet 1998;351:1755-62 «PMID: 9635947»PubMed
  140. MacMahon S, Rodgers A. The effects of blood pressure reduction in older patients: an overview of five randomized controlled trials in elderly hypertensives. Clin Exp Hypertens 1993;15:967-78 «PMID: 8268901»PubMed
  141. Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovick DS ym. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents. A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 1997;277:739-45 «PMID: 9042847»PubMed
  142. Psaty BM, Lumley T, Furberg CD ym. Health outcomes associated with various antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a network meta-analysis. JAMA 2003;289:2534-44 «PMID: 12759325»PubMed
  143. Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration, Turnbull F, Neal B ym. Effects of different regimens to lower blood pressure on major cardiovascular events in older and younger adults: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2008;336:1121-3 «PMID: 18480116»PubMed
  144. Turnbull F, Woodward M, Neal B ym. Do men and women respond differently to blood pressure-lowering treatment? Results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Eur Heart J 2008;29:2669-80 «PMID: 18852183»PubMed
  145. Turnbull F, Neal B, Algert C ym. Effects of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus: results of prospectively designed overviews of randomized trials. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:1410-9 «PMID: 15983291»PubMed
  146. Musini VM, Fortin PM, Bassett K ym. Blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin inhibitors for primary hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;4:CD007066 «PMID: 18843743»PubMed
  147. Calhoun DA. Use of aldosterone antagonists in resistant hypertension. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2006;48:387-96 «PMID: 16714158»PubMed
  148. Major cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxazosin vs chlorthalidone: the antihypertensive and lipid-lowering treatment to prevent heart attack trial (ALLHAT). ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. JAMA 2000;283:1967-75 «PMID: 10789664»PubMed
  149. Pannarale G. Optimal drug treatment of systolic hypertension in the elderly. Drugs Aging 2008;25:1-8 «PMID: 18184024»PubMed
  150. Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K ym. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary: Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and Other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (Constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur Heart J 2007;28:2375-414 «PMID: 17726041»PubMed
  151. 4th Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other Societies on Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Clinical Practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: full text. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007;14(suppl 2):S1-S113
  152. Vartiainen E, Laatikainen T, Salomaa V, Jousilahti P, Peltonen M, Puska P. Sydäninfarkti- ja aivohalvausriskin arviointi FINRISKI-tutkimuksessa. Suom Lääkäril 2007;62:4507-13
  153. Ketola E, Laatikainen T, Vartiainen E. Evaluating risk for cardiovascular diseases--vain or value? How do different cardiovascular risk scores act in real life. Eur J Public Health 2010;20:107-12 «PMID: 19482991»PubMed
  154. Peterson JC, Adler S, Burkart JM ym. Blood pressure control, proteinuria, and the progression of renal disease. The Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:754-62 «PMID: 7574193»PubMed
  155. Beckett NS, Peters R, Fletcher AE ym. Treatment of hypertension in patients 80 years of age or older. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1887-98 «PMID: 18378519»PubMed
  156. Lindholm LH, Carlberg B, Samuelsson O. Should beta blockers remain first choice in the treatment of primary hypertension? A meta-analysis. Lancet 2005;366:1545-53 «PMID: 16257341»PubMed
  157. Dahlöf B, Sever PS, Poulter NR ym. Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005;366:895-906 «PMID: 16154016»PubMed
  158. ONTARGET Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo KK ym. Telmisartan, ramipril, or both in patients at high risk for vascular events. N Engl J Med 2008;358:1547-59 «PMID: 18378520»PubMed
  159. Chapman N, Dobson J, Wilson S ym. Effect of spironolactone on blood pressure in subjects with resistant hypertension. Hypertension 2007;49:839-45 «PMID: 17309946»PubMed
  160. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA 1991;265:757-64
  161. Staessen JA, Fagard R, Thijs L ym. Randomised double-blind comparison of placebo and active treatment for older patients with isolated systolic hypertension. The Systolic Hypertension in Europe (Syst-Eur) Trial Investigators. Lancet 1997;350:757-64 «PMID: 9297994»PubMed
  162. Kjeldsen SE, Dahlöf B, Devereux RB ym. Effects of losartan on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with isolated systolic hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: a Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction (LIFE) substudy. JAMA 2002;288:1491-8 «PMID: 12243636»PubMed
  163. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Ekbom T ym. Randomised trial of old and new antihypertensive drugs in elderly patients: cardiovascular mortality and morbidity the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension-2 study. Lancet 1999;354:1751-6 «PMID: 10577635»PubMed
  164. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Sisätautilääkärien yhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä. Dyslipidemiat. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 02.04.2009
  165. Sever PS, Dahlöf B, Poulter NR ym. Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:1149-58 «PMID: 12686036»PubMed
  166. ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA 2002;288:2981-97 «PMID: 12479763»PubMed
  167. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin, Suomen Sisätautilääkäreiden yhdistyksen ja Diabetesliiton lääkärineuvoston asettama työryhmä. Diabetes. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 17.05.2007
  168. Lindholm LH, Ibsen H, Dahlöf B ym. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359:1004-10 «PMID: 11937179»PubMed
  169. Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Hiatt WR ym. The effect of nisoldipine as compared with enalapril on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes and hypertension. N Engl J Med 1998;338:645-52 «PMID: 9486993»PubMed
  170. Tatti P, Pahor M, Byington RP ym. Outcome results of the Fosinopril Versus Amlodipine Cardiovascular Events Randomized Trial (FACET) in patients with hypertension and NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1998;21:597-603 «PMID: 9571349»PubMed
  171. Neaton JD, Grimm RH Jr, Prineas RJ ym. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. Final results. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study Research Group. JAMA 1993;270:713-24 «PMID: 8336373»PubMed
  172. Lakhsman RM, Reda DJ, Materson BJ ym. for the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Diuretics and beta-blockers do not have adverse effects at 1 year on plasma lipid and lipoprotein profiles in men with hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:551-8
  173. Bakris GL, Fonseca V, Katholi RE ym. Metabolic effects of carvedilol vs metoprolol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;292:2227-36 «PMID: 15536109»PubMed
  174. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. BMJ 1998;317:713-20
  175. Curb JD, Pressel SL, Cutler JA ym. Effect of diuretic-based antihypertensive treatment on cardiovascular disease risk in older diabetic patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program Cooperative Research Group. JAMA 1996;276:1886-92 «PMID: 8968014»PubMed
  176. Wright JT Jr, Probstfield JL, Cushman WC ym. ALLHAT findings revisited in the context of subsequent analyses, other trials, and meta-analyses. Arch Intern Med 2009;169:832-42 «PMID: 19433694»PubMed
  177. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L ym. Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:611-6 «PMID: 10030325»PubMed
  178. Lithell H, Hansson L, Skoog I ym. The Study on Cognition and Prognosis in the Elderly (SCOPE): principal results of a randomized double-blind intervention trial. J Hypertens 2003;21:875-86 «PMID: 12714861»PubMed
  179. Dahlöf B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE ym. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study (LIFE): a randomised trial against atenolol. Lancet 2002;359:995-1003 «PMID: 11937178»PubMed
  180. Julius S, Kjeldsen SE, Weber M ym. Outcomes in hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk treated with regimens based on valsartan or amlodipine: the VALUE randomised trial. Lancet 2004;363:2022-31 «PMID: 15207952»PubMed
  181. Lindholm LH, Persson M, Alaupovic P ym. Metabolic outcome during 1 year in newly detected hypertensives: results of the Antihypertensive Treatment and Lipid Profile in a North of Sweden Efficacy Evaluation (ALPINE study). J Hypertens 2003;21:1563-74 «PMID: 12872052»PubMed
  182. Effects of ramipril on cardiovascular and microvascular outcomes in people with diabetes mellitus: results of the HOPE study and MICRO-HOPE substudy. Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. Lancet 2000;355:253-9 «PMID: 10675071»PubMed
  183. Padwal R, Laupacis A. Antihypertensive therapy and incidence of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review. Diabetes Care 2004;27:247-55 «PMID: 14693997»PubMed
  184. Elliott WJ, Meyer PM. Incident diabetes in clinical trials of antihypertensive drugs: a network meta-analysis. Lancet 2007;369:201-7 «PMID: 17240286»PubMed
  185. Jamerson K, Weber MA, Bakris GL ym. Benazepril plus amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide for hypertension in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med 2008;359:2417-28 «PMID: 19052124»PubMed
  186. Patel A, ADVANCE Collaborative Group, MacMahon S ym. Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2007;370:829-40 «PMID: 17765963»PubMed
  187. Verdecchia P, Schillaci G, Borgioni C ym. Prognostic significance of serial changes in left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Circulation 1998;97:48-54 «PMID: 9443431»PubMed
  188. Mosterd A, D'Agostino RB, Silbershatz H ym. Trends in the prevalence of hypertension, antihypertensive therapy, and left ventricular hypertrophy from 1950 to 1989. N Engl J Med 1999;340:1221-7 «PMID: 10210704»PubMed
  189. Ruilope LM, Schmieder RE. Left ventricular hypertrophy and clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 2008;21:500-8 «PMID: 18437140»PubMed
  190. Domanski MJ, Mitchell GF, Norman JE ym. Independent prognostic information provided by sphygmomanometrically determined pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999;33:951-8 «PMID: 10091821»PubMed
  191. Yap YG, Duong T, Bland JM ym. Prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction: an insight from survival trials. J Hypertens 2007;25:307-13 «PMID: 17211237»PubMed
  192. Freemantle N, Cleland J, Young P ym. beta Blockade after myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta regression analysis. BMJ 1999;318:1730-7 «PMID: 10381708»PubMed
  193. Geographical variation in the major risk factors of coronary heart disease in men and women aged 35-64 years. The WHO MONICA Project. World Health Stat Q 1988;41:115-40 «PMID: 3232405»PubMed
  194. Furberg CD, Psaty BM, Meyer JV. Nifedipine. Dose-related increase in mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Circulation 1995;92:1326-31 «PMID: 7648682»PubMed
  195. Poole-Wilson PA, Lubsen J, Kirwan BA ym. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with stable angina requiring treatment (ACTION trial): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2004;364:849-57 «PMID: 15351192»PubMed
  196. Lubsen J, Wagener G, Kirwan BA ym. Effect of long-acting nifedipine on mortality and cardiovascular morbidity in patients with symptomatic stable angina and hypertension: the ACTION trial. J Hypertens 2005;23:641-8 «PMID: 15716708»PubMed
  197. Gheorghiade M, Cody RJ, Francis GS ym. Current medical therapy for advanced heart failure. Heart Lung 2000;29:16-32 «PMID: 10636954»PubMed
  198. Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ ym. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999;341:709-17 «PMID: 10471456»PubMed
  199. Pitt B, Remme W, Zannad F ym. Eplerenone, a selective aldosterone blocker, in patients with left ventricular dysfunction after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2003;348:1309-21 «PMID: 12668699»PubMed
  200. Pitt B, Poole-Wilson PA, Segal R ym. Effect of losartan compared with captopril on mortality in patients with symptomatic heart failure: randomised trial--the Losartan Heart Failure Survival Study ELITE II. Lancet 2000;355:1582-7 «PMID: 10821361»PubMed
  201. Granger CB, McMurray JJ, Yusuf S ym. Effects of candesartan in patients with chronic heart failure and reduced left-ventricular systolic function intolerant to angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors: the CHARM-Alternative trial. Lancet 2003;362:772-6 «PMID: 13678870»PubMed
  202. Golzari H, Cebul RD, Bahler RC. Atrial fibrillation: restoration and maintenance of sinus rhythm and indications for anticoagulation therapy. Ann Intern Med 1996;125:311-23 «PMID: 8678396»PubMed
  203. Prystowsky EN. Management of atrial fibrillation: therapeutic options and clinical decisions. Am J Cardiol 2000;85:3D-11D «PMID: 10822035»PubMed
  204. Segal JB, McNamara RL, Miller MR ym. The evidence regarding the drugs used for ventricular rate control. J Fam Pract 2000;49:47-59 «PMID: 10678340»PubMed
  205. Hirsch AT, Haskal ZJ, Hertzer NR ym. ACC/AHA 2005 guidelines for the management of patients with peripheral arterial disease (lower extremity, renal, mesenteric, and abdominal aortic): executive summary a collaborative report from the American Association for Vascular Surgery/Society for Vascular Surgery, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society for Vascular Medicine and Biology, Society of Interventional Radiology, and the ACC/AHA Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Develop Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Peripheral Arterial Disease) endorsed by the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; Society for Vascular Nursing; TransAtlantic Inter-Society Consensus; and Vascular Disease Foundation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1239-312 «PMID: 16545667»PubMed
  206. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J ym. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-53 «PMID: 10639539»PubMed
  207. Blinc A, Poredos P. Pharmacological prevention of atherothrombotic events in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Eur J Clin Invest 2007;37:157-64 «PMID: 17359482»PubMed
  208. Clement DL, De Buyzere ML, Duprez DA. Hypertension in peripheral arterial disease. Curr Pharm Des 2004;10:3615-20 «PMID: 15579058»PubMed
  209. Radack KL, Deck CC, Bloomfield SS. Ibuprofen interferes with the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ibuprofen compared with acetaminophen. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:628-35 «PMID: 2889416»PubMed
  210. Feldman RD, Campbell N, Larochelle P ym. 1999 Canadian recommendations for the management of hypertension. Task Force for the Development of the 1999 Canadian Recommendations for the Management of Hypertension. CMAJ 1999;161 Suppl 12:S1-17 «PMID: 10624417»PubMed
  211. Gueyffier F, Boissel JP, Boutitie F ym. Effect of antihypertensive treatment in patients having already suffered from stroke. Gathering the evidence. The INDANA (INdividual Data ANalysis of Antihypertensive intervention trials) Project Collaborators. Stroke 1997;28:2557-62 «PMID: 9412649»PubMed
  212. MacMahon S, Rodgers A, Neal B ym. Blood pressure lowering for the secondary prevention of myocardial infarction and stroke. Hypertension 1997;29:537-8 «PMID: 9040434»PubMed
  213. Schrader J, Lüders S, Kulschewski A ym. The ACCESS Study: evaluation of Acute Candesartan Cilexetil Therapy in Stroke Survivors. Stroke 2003;34:1699-703 «PMID: 12817109»PubMed
  214. PROGRESS Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Lancet 2001;358:1033-41 «PMID: 11589932»PubMed
  215. Schrader J, Lüders S, Kulschewski A ym. Morbidity and Mortality After Stroke, Eprosartan Compared with Nitrendipine for Secondary Prevention: principal results of a prospective randomized controlled study (MOSES). Stroke 2005;36:1218-26 «PMID: 15879332»PubMed
  216. Suomalaisen Lääkäriseuran Duodecimin ja Suomen Neurologinen Yhdistys ry:n asettama työryhmä. Aivoinfarkti. Käypä hoito -suositus (online www.kaypahoito.fi) 15.10.2006
  217. Kivipelto M, Laakso MP, Tuomilehto J ym. Hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia as risk factors for Alzheimer's disease: potential for pharmacological intervention. CNS Drugs 2002;16:435-44 «PMID: 12056919»PubMed
  218. Hilgers KF, Mann JF. ACE inhibitors versus AT(1) receptor antagonists in patients with chronic renal disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002;13:1100-8 «PMID: 11912272»PubMed
  219. Chobanian AV, Bakris GL, Black HR ym. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure: the JNC 7 report. JAMA 2003;289:2560-72 «PMID: 12748199»PubMed
  220. Kvasnicka J, Flack JM, Grimm RH. Treatment of hypertension in the presence of coexisting medical conditions. Drugs Aging 1994;4:304-12 «PMID: 8019053»PubMed
  221. Hill NS. Fluid and electrolyte considerations in diuretic therapy for hypertensive patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Arch Intern Med 1986;146:129-33 «PMID: 2867747»PubMed
  222. Lindgren BR, Andersson RG. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and their influence on inflammation, bronchial reactivity and cough. A research review. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 1989;4:369-80 «PMID: 2682132»PubMed
  223. Löfdahl CG. Antihypertensive drugs and airway function, with special reference to calcium channel blockade. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 1989;14 Suppl 10:S40-51; discussion S59-62 «PMID: 2483571»PubMed
  224. van der Woude HJ, Zaagsma J, Postma DS ym. Detrimental effects of beta-blockers in COPD: a concern for nonselective beta-blockers. Chest 2005;127:818-24 «PMID: 15764762»PubMed
  225. von Dadelszen P, Ornstein MP, Bull SB ym. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2000;355:87-92 «PMID: 10675164»PubMed
  226. Mastrobattista JM. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in pregnancy. Semin Perinatol 1997;21:124-34 «PMID: 9201818»PubMed
  227. Perez MI, Musini VM. Pharmacological interventions for hypertensive emergencies. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008;1:CD003653 «PMID: 18254026»PubMed
  228. Varon J. Treatment of acute severe hypertension: current and newer agents. Drugs 2008;68:283-97 «PMID: 18257607»PubMed
  229. Antikainen R, Strandberg T, Tuomilehto J. Yli 80-vuotiaiden kohonneen verenpaineen lääkehoito kannattaa. Suom Lääkäril 2009;64:909-13
  230. Hakala SM, Tilvis RS, Strandberg TE. Blood pressure and mortality in an older population. A 5-year follow-up of the Helsinki Ageing Study. Eur Heart J 1997;18:1019-23 «PMID: 9183596»PubMed
  231. Rastas S, Pirttilä T, Viramo P ym. Association between blood pressure and survival over 9 years in a general population aged 85 and older. J Am Geriatr Soc 2006;54:912-8 «PMID: 16776785»PubMed
  232. Boshuizen HC, Izaks GJ, van Buuren S ym. Blood pressure and mortality in elderly people aged 85 and older: community based study. BMJ 1998;316:1780-4 «PMID: 9624064»PubMed
  233. van Bemmel T, Gussekloo J, Westendorp RG, Blaw GJ. In a population-based prospective study, no association between high blood pressure and mortality after age 85 years. J Hypertens 2005;24:287-92
  234. Qiu C, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. The age-dependent relation of blood pressure to cognitive function and dementia. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:487-99 «PMID: 16033691»PubMed
  235. van Bemmel T, Holman ER, Gussekloo J ym. Low blood pressure in the very old, a consequence of imminent heart failure: the Leiden 85-plus Study. J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:27-32 «PMID: 18650839»PubMed
  236. Oates DJ, Berlowitz DR, Glickman ME ym. Blood pressure and survival in the oldest old. J Am Geriatr Soc 2007;55:383-8 «PMID: 17341240»PubMed
  237. Somes GW, Pahor M, Shorr RI ym. The role of diastolic blood pressure when treating isolated systolic hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1999;159:2004-9 «PMID: 10510985»PubMed
  238. Wang JG, Staessen JA, Franklin SS ym. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure lowering as determinants of cardiovascular outcome. Hypertension 2005;45:907-13 «PMID: 15837826»PubMed
  239. Fagard RH, Staessen JA, Thijs L ym. On-treatment diastolic blood pressure and prognosis in systolic hypertension. Arch Intern Med 2007;167:1884-91 «PMID: 17893310»PubMed
  240. Peters R, Beckett N, Forette F ym. Incident dementia and blood pressure lowering in the Hypertension in the Very Elderly Trial cognitive function assessment (HYVET-COG): a double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Lancet Neurol 2008;7:683-9 «PMID: 18614402»PubMed
  241. American Diabetes Association. Aspirin therapy in diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23 (Suppl 1):S61-2
  242. Calhoun DA, Jones D, Textor S ym. Resistant hypertension: diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment. A scientific statement from the American Heart Association Professional Education Committee of the Council for High Blood Pressure Research. Hypertension 2008;51:1403-19 «PMID: 18391085»PubMed
  243. Sarafidis PA, Bakris GL. Resistant hypertension: an overview of evaluation and treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol 2008;52:1749-57 «PMID: 19022154»PubMed
  244. Nelson M, Reid C, Krum H ym. A systematic review of predictors of maintenance of normotension after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs. Am J Hypertens 2001;14:98-105 «PMID: 11243314»PubMed
  245. Meriranta P, Tikkanen I, Kumpusalo E ym. Verenpainepotilas terveyskeskuksessa: hoitotulokset paranemassa. Suom Lääkäril 2004;59:3253-8
  246. Varis J, Savola H, Vesalainen R ym. Treatment of hypertension in Finnish general practice seems unsatisfactory despite evidence-based guidelines. Blood Press 2009;18:62-7 «PMID: 19353413»PubMed
  247. Takala J, Niemelä N, Rosti J ym. Improving compliance with therapeutic regimens in hypertensive patients in a community health center. Circulation 1979;59:540-3 «PMID: 761334»PubMed
  248. Alanen SI, Johannala-Kemppainen R, Ijäs JJ ym. Evaluation of current care effectiveness: a survey of hypertension guideline implementation in Finnish health centres. Scand J Prim Health Care 2007;25:232-6 «PMID: 17852969»PubMed
  249. Allender PS, Cutler JA, Follmann D ym. Dietary calcium and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Ann Intern Med 1996;124:825-31 «PMID: 8610952»PubMed
  250. Al-Mallah MH, Tleyjeh IM, Abdel-Latif AA ym. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular systolic function: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006;47:1576-83 «PMID: 16630993»PubMed
  251. Antithrombotic Trialists' (ATT) Collaboration, Baigent C, Blackwell L ym. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet 2009;373:1849-60 «PMID: 19482214»PubMed
  252. Appel LJ, Moore TJ, Obarzanek E ym. A clinical trial of the effects of dietary patterns on blood pressure. DASH Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 1997;336:1117-24 «PMID: 9099655»PubMed
  253. Bangalore S, Kamalakkannan G, Parkar S ym. Fixed-dose combinations improve medication compliance: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2007;120:713-9 «PMID: 17679131»PubMed
  254. Bangalore S, Messerli FH, Cohen JD ym. Verapamil-sustained release-based treatment strategy is equivalent to atenolol-based treatment strategy at reducing cardiovascular events in patients with prior myocardial infarction: an INternational VErapamil SR-Trandolapril (INVEST) substudy. Am Heart J 2008;156:241-7 «PMID: 18657652»PubMed
  255. Bao DQ, Mori TA, Burke V ym. Effects of dietary fish and weight reduction on ambulatory blood pressure in overweight hypertensives. Hypertension 1998;32:710-7 «PMID: 9774368»PubMed
  256. Bartolucci AA, Howard G. Meta-analysis of data from the six primary prevention trials of cardiovascular events using aspirin. Am J Cardiol 2006;98:746-50 «PMID: 16950176»PubMed
  257. Beard TC, Cooke HM, Gray WR ym. Randomised controlled trial of a no-added-sodium diet for mild hypertension. Lancet 1982;2:455-8 «PMID: 6125636»PubMed
  258. Bloom BS. Continuation of initial antihypertensive medication after 1 year of therapy. Clin Ther 1998;20:671-81 «PMID: 9737827»PubMed
  259. Bønaa KH, Bjerve KS, Straume B ym. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on blood pressure in hypertension. A population-based intervention trial from the Tromsø study. N Engl J Med 1990;322:795-801 «PMID: 2137901»PubMed
  260. Bucher HC, Cook RJ, Guyatt GH ym. Effects of dietary calcium supplementation on blood pressure. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1996;275:1016-22 «PMID: 8596234»PubMed
  261. Cappuccio FP, Kerry SM, Forbes L ym. Blood pressure control by home monitoring: meta-analysis of randomised trials. BMJ 2004;329:145 «PMID: 15194600»PubMed
  262. Carney SL, Gillies AH, Smith AJ ym. Effect of dietary sodium restriction on patients receiving antihypertensive medication. Clin Exp Hypertens A 1984;6:1095-105 «PMID: 6744639»PubMed
  263. CIBIS-II Investigators and Committees. The Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II): a randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:9-13
  264. Collins R, MacMahon S. Blood pressure, antihypertensive drug treatment and the risks of stroke and of coronary heart disease. Br Med Bull 1994;50:272-98 «PMID: 8205459»PubMed
  265. Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S ym. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, Short-term reductions in blood pressure: overview of randomised drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet 1990;335:827-38 «PMID: 1969567»PubMed
  266. Conlin PR, Moore TJ, Swartz SL ym. Effect of indomethacin on blood pressure lowering by captopril and losartan in hypertensive patients. Hypertension 2000;36:461-5 «PMID: 10988282»PubMed
  267. Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effect of resistance training on resting blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:251-9 «PMID: 15662209»PubMed
  268. Cornelissen VA, Fagard RH. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension 2005;46:667-75 «PMID: 16157788»PubMed
  269. Cushman WC, Cutler JA, Hanna E ym. Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension Study (PATHS): effects of an alcohol treatment program on blood pressure. Arch Intern Med 1998;158:1197-207 «PMID: 9625399»PubMed
  270. Cuspidi C, Esposito A, Negri F ym. Studies on left ventricular hypertrophy regression in arterial hypertension: a clear message for the clinician? Am J Hypertens 2008;21:458-63 «PMID: 18369363»PubMed
  271. Dahlöf B, Gosse P, Guéret P ym. Perindopril/indapamide combination more effective than enalapril in reducing blood pressure and left ventricular mass: the PICXEL study. J Hypertens 2005;23:2063-70 «PMID: 16208150»PubMed
  272. Devereux RB, Dahlöf B, Gerdts E ym. Regression of hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy by losartan compared with atenolol: the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) trial. Circulation 2004;110:1456-62 «PMID: 15326072»PubMed
  273. Dickinson HO, Mason JM, Nicolson DJ ym. Lifestyle interventions to reduce raised blood pressure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2006;24:215-33 «PMID: 16508562»PubMed
  274. Dickinson HO, Nicolson DJ, Campbell F ym. Potassium supplementation for the management of primary hypertension in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD004641 «PMID: 16856053»PubMed
  275. Dickstein K, Kjekshus J, OPTIMAAL Steering Committee of the OPTIMAAL Study Group. Effects of losartan and captopril on mortality and morbidity in high-risk patients after acute myocardial infarction: the OPTIMAAL randomised trial. Optimal Trial in Myocardial Infarction with Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan. Lancet 2002;360:752-60 «PMID: 12241832»PubMed
  276. Domino FJ. Improving adherence to treatment for hypertension. Am Fam Physician 2005;71:2089-90 «PMID: 15952435»PubMed
  277. Duley L, Henderson-Smart DJ. Drugs for treatment of very high blood pressure during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002;4:CD001449 «PMID: 12519557»PubMed
  278. Erwteman TM, Nagelkerke N, Lubsen J ym. Beta blockade, diuretics, and salt restriction for the management of mild hypertension: a randomised double blind trial. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984;289:406-9 «PMID: 6432119»PubMed
  279. Estacio RO, Jeffers BW, Gifford N ym. Effect of blood pressure control on diabetic microvascular complications in patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23 Suppl 2:B54-64 «PMID: 10860192»PubMed
  280. Fagerberg B, Andersson OK, Isaksson B ym. Blood pressure control during weight reduction in obese hypertensive men: separate effects of sodium and energy restriction. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1984;288:11-4 «PMID: 6418295»PubMed
  281. Flather MD, Shibata MC, Coats AJ ym. Randomized trial to determine the effect of nebivolol on mortality and cardiovascular hospital admission in elderly patients with heart failure (SENIORS). Eur Heart J 2005;26:215-25 «PMID: 15642700»PubMed
  282. Flather MD, Yusuf S, Køber L ym. Long-term ACE-inhibitor therapy in patients with heart failure or left-ventricular dysfunction: a systematic overview of data from individual patients. ACE-Inhibitor Myocardial Infarction Collaborative Group. Lancet 2000;355:1575-81 «PMID: 10821360»PubMed
  283. Fox KM, EURopean trial On reduction of cardiac events with Perindopril in stable coronary Artery disease Investigators. Efficacy of perindopril in reduction of cardiovascular events among patients with stable coronary artery disease: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial (the EUROPA study). Lancet 2003;362:782-8 «PMID: 13678872»PubMed
  284. Garg R, Yusuf S. Overview of randomized trials of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors on mortality and morbidity in patients with heart failure. Collaborative Group on ACE Inhibitor Trials. JAMA 1995;273:1450-6 «PMID: 7654275»PubMed
  285. Geleijnse JM, Giltay EJ, Grobbee DE ym. Blood pressure response to fish oil supplementation: metaregression analysis of randomized trials. J Hypertens 2002;20:1493-9 «PMID: 12172309»PubMed
  286. Gottdiener JS, Reda DJ, Massie BM ym. Effect of single-drug therapy on reduction of left ventricular mass in mild to moderate hypertension: comparison of six antihypertensive agents. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. Circulation 1997;95:2007-14 «PMID: 9133508»PubMed
  287. Grimm RH Jr, Flack JM, Grandits GA ym. Long-term effects on plasma lipids of diet and drugs to treat hypertension. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) Research Group. JAMA 1996;275:1549-56 «PMID: 8622245»PubMed
  288. Grimm RH Jr, Grandits GA, Cutler JA ym. Relationships of quality-of-life measures to long-term lifestyle and drug treatment in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study. Arch Intern Med 1997;157:638-48 «PMID: 9080918»PubMed
  289. Grimm RH Jr, Grandits GA, Prineas RJ ym. Long-term effects on sexual function of five antihypertensive drugs and nutritional hygienic treatment in hypertensive men and women. Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS) Hypertension 1997;29:8-14 «PMID: 9039073»PubMed
  290. Gueyffier F, Bulpitt C, Boissel JP ym. Antihypertensive drugs in very old people: a subgroup meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. INDANA Group. Lancet 1999;353:793-6 «PMID: 10459960»PubMed
  291. Gupta AK, Dahlof B, Dobson J ym. Determinants of new-onset diabetes among 19,257 hypertensive patients randomized in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial--Blood Pressure Lowering Arm and the relative influence of antihypertensive medication. Diabetes Care 2008;31:982-8 «PMID: 18235048»PubMed
  292. Hansson L, Hedner T, Lund-Johansen P ym. Randomised trial of effects of calcium antagonists compared with diuretics and beta-blockers on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Nordic Diltiazem (NORDIL) study. Lancet 2000;356:359-65 «PMID: 10972367»PubMed
  293. Hansson L, Lindholm LH, Niskanen L ym. Effect of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibition compared with conventional therapy on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertension: the Captopril Prevention Project (CAPPP) randomised trial. Lancet 1999;353:611-6 «PMID: 10030325»PubMed
  294. Hinderliter A, Sherwood A, Gullette EC ym. Reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy after exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with mild hypertension. Arch Intern Med 2002;162:1333-9 «PMID: 12076231»PubMed
  295. Holman RR, Paul SK, Bethel MA ym. Long-term follow-up after tight control of blood pressure in type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008;359:1565-76 «PMID: 18784091»PubMed
  296. Houlihan CA, Allen TJ, Baxter AL ym. A low-sodium diet potentiates the effects of losartan in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2002;25:663-71 «PMID: 11919122»PubMed
  297. Jibrini MB, Molnar J, Arora RR. Prevention of atrial fibrillation by way of abrogation of the renin-angiotensin system: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Ther 2008;15:36-43 «PMID: 18223352»PubMed
  298. John JH, Ziebland S, Yudkin P ym. Effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma antioxidant concentrations and blood pressure: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2002;359:1969-74 «PMID: 12076551»PubMed
  299. Johnson AG, Nguyen TV, Day RO. Do nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs affect blood pressure? A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1994;121:289-300 «PMID: 8037411»PubMed
  300. Jones JK, Gorkin L, Lian JF ym. Discontinuation of and changes in treatment after start of new courses of antihypertensive drugs: a study of a United Kingdom population. BMJ 1995;311:293-5 «PMID: 7633238»PubMed
  301. Jula AM, Karanko HM. Effects on left ventricular hypertrophy of long-term nonpharmacological treatment with sodium restriction in mild-to-moderate essential hypertension. Circulation 1994;89:1023-31 «PMID: 8124787»PubMed
  302. Kannel WB, Wolf PA, Benjamin EJ ym. Prevalence, incidence, prognosis, and predisposing conditions for atrial fibrillation: population-based estimates. Am J Cardiol 1998;82:2N-9N «PMID: 9809895»PubMed
  303. Kasiske BL, Ma JZ, Kalil RS ym. Effects of antihypertensive therapy on serum lipids. Ann Intern Med 1995;122:133-41 «PMID: 7992988»PubMed
  304. Khan N, McAlister FA. Re-examining the efficacy of beta-blockers for the treatment of hypertension: a meta-analysis. CMAJ 2006;174:1737-42 «PMID: 16754904»PubMed
  305. Khedun SM, Moodley J, Naicker T ym. Drug management of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Pharmacol Ther 1997;74:221-58 «PMID: 9336024»PubMed
  306. Klingbeil AU, Schneider M, Martus P ym. A meta-analysis of the effects of treatment on left ventricular mass in essential hypertension. Am J Med 2003;115:41-6 «PMID: 12867233»PubMed
  307. Kostis JB, Wilson AC, Freudenberger RS ym. Long-term effect of diuretic-based therapy on fatal outcomes in subjects with isolated systolic hypertension with and without diabetes. Am J Cardiol 2005;95:29-35 «PMID: 15619390»PubMed
  308. L'Allier PL, Ducharme A, Keller PF ym. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in hypertensive patients is associated with a reduction in the occurrence of atrial fibrillation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004;44:159-64 «PMID: 15234426»PubMed
  309. Law MR, Frost CD, Wald NJ. By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? III--Analysis of data from trials of salt reduction. BMJ 1991;302:819-24 «PMID: 1827353»PubMed
  310. Law MR, Frost CD, Wald NJ. By how much does dietary salt reduction lower blood pressure? I--Analysis of observational data among populations. BMJ 1991;302:811-5 «PMID: 2025703»PubMed
  311. Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ 2009;338:b1665 «PMID: 19454737»PubMed
  312. Lawes CM, Bennett DA, Feigin VL ym. Blood pressure and stroke: an overview of published reviews. Stroke 2004;35:776-85 «PMID: 14976329»PubMed
  313. Liebson PR, Grandits GA, Dianzumba S ym. Comparison of five antihypertensive monotherapies and placebo for change in left ventricular mass in patients receiving nutritional-hygienic therapy in the Treatment of Mild Hypertension Study (TOMHS). Circulation 1995;91:698-706 «PMID: 7828296»PubMed
  314. Lièvre M, Gueyffier F, Ekbom T ym. Efficacy of diuretics and beta-blockers in diabetic hypertensive patients. Results from a meta-analysis. The INDANA Steering Committee. Diabetes Care 2000;23 Suppl 2:B65-71 «PMID: 10860193»PubMed
  315. Lip GY, Frison L, Grind M ym. Effect of hypertension on anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J 2007;28:752-9 «PMID: 17289744»PubMed
  316. MacGregor GA, Markandu ND, Singer DR ym. Moderate sodium restriction with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor in essential hypertension: a double blind study. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1987;294:531-4 «PMID: 3103761»PubMed
  317. MacMahon SW, Wilcken DE, Macdonald GJ. The effect of weight reduction on left ventricular mass. A randomized controlled trial in young, overweight hypertensive patients. N Engl J Med 1986;314:334-9 «PMID: 2935737»PubMed
  318. Magee LA, Elran E, Bull SB ym. Risks and benefits of beta-receptor blockers for pregnancy hypertension: overview of the randomized trials. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2000;88:15-26 «PMID: 10659912»PubMed
  319. Magee LA, Ornstein MP, von Dadelszen P. Fortnightly review: management of hypertension in pregnancy. BMJ 1999;318:1332-6 «PMID: 10323823»PubMed
  320. Magee LA, Schick B, Donnenfeld AE ym. The safety of calcium channel blockers in human pregnancy: a prospective, multicenter cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1996;174:823-8 «PMID: 8633650»PubMed
  321. Materson BJ, Reda DJ, Cushman WC ym. Single-drug therapy for hypertension in men. A comparison of six antihypertensive agents with placebo. The Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group on Antihypertensive Agents. N Engl J Med 1993;328:914-21 «PMID: 8446138»PubMed
  322. Thrombosis prevention trial: randomised trial of low-intensity oral anticoagulation with warfarin and low-dose aspirin in the primary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in men at increased risk. The Medical Research Council's General Practice Research Framework. Lancet 1998;351:233-41 «PMID: 9457092»PubMed
  323. MERIT-HF Study Group. Effect of metoprolol CR/XL in chronic heart failure. Metoprolol CR/XL Randomised Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF). Lancet 1999;353:2001-7
  324. Messerli FH, Hansen JF, Gibson RS ym. Heart rate-lowering calcium antagonists in hypertensive post-myocardial infarction patients. J Hypertens 2001;19:977-82 «PMID: 11393682»PubMed
  325. Midgley JP, Matthew AG, Greenwood CM ym. Effect of reduced dietary sodium on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. JAMA 1996;275:1590-7 «PMID: 8622251»PubMed
  326. Mori TA, Bao DQ, Burke V ym. Docosahexaenoic acid but not eicosapentaenoic acid lowers ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate in humans. Hypertension 1999;34:253-60 «PMID: 10454450»PubMed
  327. Morris MC, Sacks F, Rosner B. Does fish oil lower blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled trials. Circulation 1993;88:523-33 «PMID: 8339414»PubMed
  328. Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. MRC Working Party. BMJ 1992;304:405-12 «PMID: 1445513»PubMed
  329. Navis G, de Jong PE, Donker AJ ym. Moderate sodium restriction in hypertensive subjects: renal effects of ACE-inhibition. Kidney Int 1987;31:815-9 «PMID: 3033389»PubMed
  330. Ohkubo T, Asayama K, Kikuya M ym. How many times should blood pressure be measured at home for better prediction of stroke risk? Ten-year follow-up results from the Ohasama study. J Hypertens 2004;22:1099-104 «PMID: 15167443»PubMed
  331. Owens CJ, Brackett NC Jr. Role of sodium intake in the antihypertensive effect of propranolol. South Med J 1978;71:43-6 «PMID: 622601»PubMed
  332. Packer M, Bristow MR, Cohn JN ym. The effect of carvedilol on morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. U.S. Carvedilol Heart Failure Study Group. N Engl J Med 1996;334:1349-55 «PMID: 8614419»PubMed
  333. Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB ym. Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med 2001;344:1651-8 «PMID: 11386263»PubMed
  334. Pahor M, Psaty BM, Alderman MH ym. Health outcomes associated with calcium antagonists compared with other first-line antihypertensive therapies: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Lancet 2000;356:1949-54 «PMID: 11130522»PubMed
  335. Parijs J, Joossens JV, Van der Linden L ym. Moderate sodium restriction and diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Am Heart J 1973;85:22-34 «PMID: 4564947»PubMed
  336. Pedersen OD, Bagger H, Kober L ym. Trandolapril reduces the incidence of atrial fibrillation after acute myocardial infarction in patients with left ventricular dysfunction. Circulation 1999;100:376-80 «PMID: 10421597»PubMed
  337. Pfeffer MA, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ ym. Valsartan, captopril, or both in myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both. N Engl J Med 2003;349:1893-906 «PMID: 14610160»PubMed
  338. Philipp T, Anlauf M, Distler A ym. Randomised, double blind, multicentre comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, nitrendipine, and enalapril in antihypertensive treatment: results of the HANE study. HANE Trial Research Group. BMJ 1997;315:154-9 «PMID: 9251545»PubMed
  339. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. BMJ 1998;317:713-20 «PMID: 9732338»PubMed
  340. Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R ym. Evidence for a direct effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in normotensive men. A randomized controlled trial. Hypertension 1985;7:707-13 «PMID: 3897044»PubMed
  341. Puddey IB, Beilin LJ, Vandongen R. Regular alcohol use raises blood pressure in treated hypertensive subjects. A randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1987;1:647-51 «PMID: 2882082»PubMed
  342. Ram CV, Garrett BN, Kaplan NM. Moderate sodium restriction and various diuretics in the treatment of hypertension. Arch Intern Med 1981;141:1015-9 «PMID: 7247587»PubMed
  343. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM ym. Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. DASH-Sodium Collaborative Research Group. N Engl J Med 2001;344:3-10 «PMID: 11136953»PubMed
  344. Schmieder RE, Kjeldsen SE, Julius S ym. Reduced incidence of new-onset atrial fibrillation with angiotensin II receptor blockade: the VALUE trial. J Hypertens 2008;26:403-11 «PMID: 18300848»PubMed
  345. Schmieder RE, Martus P, Klingbeil A. Reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension. A meta-analysis of randomized double-blind studies. JAMA 1996;275:1507-13 «PMID: 8622227»PubMed
  346. Schmieder RE, Schlaich MP, Klingbeil AU ym. Update on reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy in essential hypertension (a meta-analysis of all randomized double-blind studies until December 1996). Nephrol Dial Transplant 1998;13:564-9 «PMID: 9550628»PubMed
  347. Sega R, Facchetti R, Bombelli M ym. Prognostic value of ambulatory and home blood pressures compared with office blood pressure in the general population: follow-up results from the Pressioni Arteriose Monitorate e Loro Associazioni (PAMELA) study. Circulation 2005;111:1777-83 «PMID: 15809377»PubMed
  348. Singer DR, Markandu ND, Cappuccio FP ym. Reduction of salt intake during converting enzyme inhibitor treatment compared with addition of a thiazide. Hypertension 1995;25:1042-4 «PMID: 7737713»PubMed
  349. Staessen JA, Den Hond E, Celis H ym. Antihypertensive treatment based on blood pressure measurement at home or in the physician's office: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004;291:955-64 «PMID: 14982911»PubMed
  350. Staessen JA, Gasowski J, Wang JG ym. Risks of untreated and treated isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly: meta-analysis of outcome trials. Lancet 2000;355:865-72 «PMID: 10752701»PubMed
  351. Streppel MT, Arends LR, van 't Veer P ym. Dietary fiber and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Arch Intern Med 2005;165:150-6 «PMID: 15668359»PubMed
  352. Takala J, Kumpusalo E ym. Verenpainepotilas terveyskeskuksessa: hoidossa yhä parantamisen varaa. Suom Lääkäril 2001;56:269-73
  353. Takala J. Miksi kohonneen verenpaineen hoito epäonnistuu. Suom Lääkäril 1995;50:27-32
  354. Takiya LN, Peterson AM, Finley RS. Meta-analysis of interventions for medication adherence to antihypertensives. Ann Pharmacother 2004;38:1617-24 «PMID: 15304624»PubMed
  355. Telmisartan Randomised AssessmeNt Study in ACE iNtolerant subjects with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) Investigators, Yusuf S, Teo K ym. Effects of the angiotensin-receptor blocker telmisartan on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients intolerant to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2008;372:1174-83 «PMID: 18757085»PubMed
  356. Turnbull F, Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration. Effects of different blood-pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events: results of prospectively-designed overviews of randomised trials. Lancet 2003;362:1527-35 «PMID: 14615107»PubMed
  357. Ueshima H, Mikawa K, Baba S ym. Effect of reduced alcohol consumption on blood pressure in untreated hypertensive men. Hypertension 1993;21:248-52 «PMID: 8428787»PubMed
  358. van Brummelen P, Schalekamp M, de Graeff J. Influence of sodium intake on hydrochlorothiazide-induced changes in blood pressure, serum electrolytes, renin and aldosterone in essential hypertension. Acta Med Scand 1978;204:151-7 «PMID: 696414»PubMed
  359. van Mierlo LA, Arends LR, Streppel MT ym. Blood pressure response to calcium supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens 2006;20:571-80 «PMID: 16673011»PubMed
  360. Varis J, Savola H, Vesalainen R, Kantola I. Verenpainetaudin hoitotasapaino ei ole Suomessa vieläkään hyvä. Suom Lääkäril 2008;63:3289-95
  361. Verdecchia P, Angeli F, Borgioni C ym. Changes in cardiovascular risk by reduction of left ventricular mass in hypertension: a meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens 2003;16:895-9 «PMID: 14573325»PubMed
  362. Verdecchia P, Reboldi G, Gattobigio R ym. Atrial fibrillation in hypertension: predictors and outcome. Hypertension 2003;41:218-23 «PMID: 12574085»PubMed
  363. von Dadelszen P, Ornstein MP, Bull SB ym. Fall in mean arterial pressure and fetal growth restriction in pregnancy hypertension: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2000;355:87-92 «PMID: 10675164»PubMed
  364. Wachtell K, Lehto M, Gerdts E ym. Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: the Losartan Intervention For End Point Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:712-9 «PMID: 15734615»PubMed
  365. Wald DS, Law M, Morris JK ym. Combination therapy versus monotherapy in reducing blood pressure: meta-analysis on 11,000 participants from 42 trials. Am J Med 2009;122:290-300 «PMID: 19272490»PubMed
  366. Weinberger MH, Cohen SJ, Miller JZ ym. Dietary sodium restriction as adjunctive treatment of hypertension. JAMA 1988;259:2561-5 «PMID: 3357230»PubMed
  367. Whelton PK, He J, Cutler JA ym. Effects of oral potassium on blood pressure. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. JAMA 1997;277:1624-32 «PMID: 9168293»PubMed
  368. Whelton SP, Hyre AD, Pedersen B ym. Effect of dietary fiber intake on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled clinical trials. J Hypertens 2005;23:475-81 «PMID: 15716684»PubMed
  369. Wiysonge CS, Bradley H, Mayosi BM ym. Beta-blockers for hypertension. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007;1:CD002003 «PMID: 17253471»PubMed
  370. Can non-pharmacological interventions reduce doses of drugs needed for the treatment of hypertension? World Hypertension League. Bull World Health Organ 1992;70:685-90 «PMID: 1486664»PubMed
  371. Wright JM, Lee CH, Chambers GK. Systematic review of antihypertensive therapies: Does the evidence assist in choosing a first-line drug? Can Med Assoc J 1999;161:25-32
  372. Xin X, He J, Frontini MG ym. Effects of alcohol reduction on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 2001;38:1112-7 «PMID: 11711507»PubMed
  373. Yusuf S, Sleight P, Pogue J ym. Effects of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ramipril, on cardiovascular events in high-risk patients. The Heart Outcomes Prevention Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 2000;342:145-53 «PMID: 10639539»PubMed